The field of chaotic synchronization has grown considerably since its advent in 1990. Several subdisciplines and “cottage industries” have emerged that have taken on bona fide lives of their own. Our purpose in this paper is to collect results from these various areas in a review article format with a tutorial emphasis. Fundamentals of chaotic synchronization are reviewed first with emphases on the geometry of synchronization and stability criteria. Several widely used coupling configurations are examined and, when available, experimental demonstrations of their success (generally with chaotic circuit systems) are described. Particular focus is given to the recent notion of synchronous substitution—a method to synchronize chaotic systems using a larger class of scalar chaotic coupling signals than previously thought possible. Connections between this technique and well-known control theory results are also outlined. Extensions of the technique are presented that allow so-called hyperchaotic systems (systems with more than one positive Lyapunov exponent) to be synchronized. Several proposals for “secure” communication schemes have been advanced; major ones are reviewed and their strengths and weaknesses are touched upon. Arrays of coupled chaotic systems have received a great deal of attention lately and have spawned a host of interesting and, in some cases, counterintuitive phenomena including bursting above synchronization thresholds, destabilizing transitions as coupling increases (short-wavelength bifurcations), and riddled basins. In addition, a general mathematical framework for analyzing the stability of arrays with arbitrary coupling configurations is outlined. Finally, the topic of generalized synchronization is discussed, along with data analysis techniques that can be used to decide whether two systems satisfy the mathematical requirements of generalized synchronization. © 1997 American Institute of Physics.